Category Archives: Education

How Technology Is Changing the Face of Education

Technology is a facet of society that is constantly changing and when these changes take place the members of a particular culture have to be willing to make adjustments. This particular fact is especially true for people who are employed within the field of education. Technology has infiltrated the educational system rather quickly and its usage is expected to significantly increase in the coming years. Teachers can (and still do) instruct students without the use of computers, laptops and tablets but sooner or later they will have to make some adjustments for the use of digital equipment as part of the learning environment.

The Department of Education and the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) have developed technology standards that have been adopted by the majority of states within the U.S. These standards encourage the use of computers, smart boards, laptops and tablets within the classroom. Laptops and computers have already been implemented in school buildings across the country. Tablets are the latest form of computing technology that is now being adapted for the learning environment.

Many teachers currently use smart boards to instruct their pupils especially on the lower grades. Smart boards provide teaches with the ability to use computer software and media presentations in order to instruct their students.

Most teachers use computers as a supplementary form of teaching. They allow students to go off in groups on their own and learn educational concepts from approved software or websites.

Middle and high schools also use technology to instruct students but they typically take a more direct approach than elementary schools. Some high and middle school districts assign students a laptop that they must use inside of the classroom. These laptops are given to students at the beginning of the year and they must return them back to the district once a school year is completed. Many students in high school and middle school will also be expected to complete assignments online and through the use of networking with fellow students. Though many high and middle schools use the traditional approaches of teaching they are now using digital based instruction at a greater rate.

Education at the college level still involves lectures and note taking but professors and students can perform these tasks with the use of computer technology. Digital technology makes it easier for students to record information and it also helps professors to give media presentation that enhances their lectures and instruction.

The education system is going to be one of the primary areas of society where technology will be greatly utilized. Many of the jobs in the present and the coming future will involve some use of computer technology and people will have to know how to use this science in order to earn a decent living. Schools are exposing children to digital technology for this purpose and to make them more competitive and highly educated in today’s world. Technology is extremely important to the learning environment and it has become a permanent part to the process of education.

Education Technologies – Who is Training the Trainers?

Today, it is not unheard of for schools to have access to many varied types of education technologies. Many public school systems are able to use interactive whiteboards, laptops, wireless slate devices, software, amplification systems, and document cameras to support learning for their students.

While having the ability to teach students about technology and its use is wonderful, general education teachers are being asked more regularly to teach the students about a myriad of technology items. What if the teachers know no more (or perhaps know less) than the students to which they are to be teaching? This could serve as a challenge for students and teachers.

Many states currently have, or are working on, putting technology standards into place at all public school levels. These standards serve an important purpose. While we want children to be able to learn about technology, making sure there is a scope and sequence is just as important. Teaching young elementary kids how to use a keyboard and mouse will be just as appropriate as instructing middle schoolers about online predators and internet safety. By having specific topics at each grade level that are developmentally right, teachers can make sure that there are no earning gaps for the children.

Having qualified staff to educate our children is also an important consideration. When the regular education teak her is asked to fulfill this role, he may not feel technology literate himself. If the instructor is from an older generation, she may be intimidated and not be able to accurately teach the subject if not trained properly. If districts are expecting teachers to introduce technology standards, they should also be prepared with additional staff development opportunities at every level for all to partake. It is only fair to the instructor and the students.

With so many new online etiquette rules, keeping up with the children becomes quite a task for anyone who works with them on a daily basis. Many times, students are more technologically advanced than the leader of the class. This poses a problem in many ways. Teachers must step up to the challenge of trying to stay one step ahead of the game by reading trade journals and asking technology directors within their district for the latest technology news. Being educated about trends will keep adults ready to approach this new learning avenue with confidence.

Technology, Discounts, Customer Education to Drive Telematics Auto Insurance

Insurers are recognizing the importance of discounts to penetrate U.S. and Canadian markets. But this calls for the combination of product features.

Something seriously required in favor of the auto insurance policy holders in United States of America and Canada. UBI adoption is growing at a frenetic pace in North America according to the figures released by BI Research. Market watchers are keenly observing the growth of auto insurance and the factors that can pose challenges to auto insurance industry. Figures depict a rosy picture. Telematics based auto insurance growth rose from 4.1% in 2015 to 6% in 2016 in North America. The growth is pegged at 19.2% in 2019. What is the role of telematics expertise in expanding market reach? Can discounts increase the subscriber base? Is there any pitfall? Let us explore.

Insurers are constantly on the lookout for cost effective ways of doing business with telematics. But convincing policy holders seem to be their challenge. Yesterday’s know how is passe with newer and sophisticated knowledge developing on ICT front. Data collection and customer engagement hold the key for success in the wired world today. Aspiring policy holders can be convinced by the insurers with cutting edge technologies like: Driving data capture, direct marketing channel, Roadside assistance (NSD Partner), Geo analytics and gamification to mention a few. The millennial and Gen Z are technophile demography for the telematics market.

Technical features are for risk mitigation and discounts are for cost reduction. If both factors are combined market penetration is easier. At this point an expert is taking a balanced view. Donald Light the director of Celent, a research and consulting firm, is of the opinion that a combination of both discounts and surcharges can provide a bright future for telematics in Canada. He was sharing his view during ‘Insurance Telematics Canada 2016’ in Toronto. We all know surcharges are additional premiums against risky driving behavior. And Light suggest this to change the driver perception on their driving.

What perception Light wants to change? People pay a price for a product or service on their perception on quality. The same theory is applicable to one’s perception towards driving. If one thinks he is a ‘better driver’ and not an average driver which he actually is, then encouraging them to implement telematics mobile app to avail discounts will become a demanding task. Because his self esteem comes in the way of enhancing his driving behavior and accepting drive score as ultimate criteria for improving his driving. It is at this very stage only education is needed to change perceptions.

The very purpose of UBI is to reward the well behaving drivers on criteria like speed, acceleration, phone use etc. Vast part of the population are mobile and it makes sense for them to implement telematics mobile app on their mobile devices to mitigate accidents as well as earning drive score to avail policy premium discounts. Education is needed to change wrong perceptions of drivers to accept UBI as fair and to understand what standard driving behavior is.

Education should be extended on ensuring cyber security as telematics mobile apps are also prone to cyber attacks. This should be seen in the context where 60% of cars and trucks are going to be connected on net by 2017. This means tailored telematics services should address cyber security issue also to gain more acceptance in the market.

Switching to telematics is a good option; it is also promising for the insurance sector that wants to expand its reach. Cutting edge technical features, discounts for drive scorecards as well as surcharges for errant driving behavior can increase the acceptability of mobile telematics thereby attracting new mobile subscribers. If these issues are addressed, auto insurance market penetration will become easy.

How Technology Has Improved Education Levels

The use of technology in learning institutions has increased. According to a recent study by CompTIA, up to 78% of teachers believe the use of technology in schools has positively influenced student’s productivity while 65% of educators believe the use of technology has made students more productive and learning exciting.

Technology is today used in almost all aspects of our day-to-day activities. People have become accustomed to the use of devices developed through technology. Despite a smaller percentage of individuals claiming the use of technology has done as much destruction as good, education is one of the areas where its use has completely transformed the way people study and educational institutions operate. Here are six ways how the use of technology has managed to help improve education standards.

1. Online Resources

You can always research on the internet for any educational information you need. You are always bound to find some help on the web from the broad range of resources available. The use of online resources such as studying tips, free courses, and secure custom support will help improve your grades.

2. Multimedia learning

People learn in different ways. While some individuals learn better visually, others do so using audio. This has made most education institutions and teachers to change their tact. Instead of focusing on lectures and giving notes, most educators and schools have resorted to using of multimedia to help teach their students better. It comprises use of auditory, visual and kinesthetic. With technology, there is always a way you can effectively learn.

3. Use of E-books

Nothing bores a learner like having to lug around a pile of books for a curriculum. You can carry your entire course materials wherever you go in a tablet. You can always open the eBooks and do light studying wherever or whenever you wish like reading. The e-books are also known to cost less compared to the usual paperbacks making them affordable to most students.

4. Worldwide tutoring

The Internet is not just known for having the unlimited amount of information online; it also contains an infinite number of minds! With technology, you are now able to receive help from anywhere irrespective of your location. This is beneficial especially to people who are interested in learning other languages.

5. Online Editing

There are times when you might need a second opinion but might not have a friend around to have a look at it. Reading through your work and making corrections before submission is one thing you can never afford to ignore. You are most likely set to miss on something when you decide to edit all by yourself. Sharing your work with an online editor is one efficient method you can always use to help improve the quality of your paper.

6. Study Groups

Despite preferring to explore alone, there are times when you might be assigned a group project. However, scheduling a meeting with your group students can be impossible. With technology, there are online platforms making group discussions easier. You can easily share notes and other materials and collaborate through video chats. You can also decide to connect with other students doing a similar course even if you are not in the same group.

Technology is here to stay. Instead of opposing the use of technology in education, it is best to embrace it and use it to help improve your education by furthering your studies. Gone are the days when one will have to go through the entire encyclopedia researching for what you can get in seconds with the use of technology.

The Future of Educational Technology and Education 3.0

Thinking of what education might look like in the next decade, one quickly realizes that the trends in technology are leaving a large number of our students behind. We no longer live in an age of visible movement when it comes to progress and innovation. Today is an age of exponential change. New and ever-improving technologies are popping up every day and in every corner of society.

Educating the best and the brightest in this brave new world will take a new and improved educational paradigm. Allowing our educational tools to age in the corner of the classroom will be the mistake that may cost us our future. Throwing away masses of children to inequitable access will ensure that we languish at the bottom of the global pool of employable workers for decades to come.

The New Toolbox

I was at an auction a few years ago and noticed a few old woodworking tools that I thought I could use. For a few bucks, I was able to snag an assortment of hand tools that may have been in someone’s toolbox for a generation or more. As the next decade passed, I used these tools in my shop for a wide variety of projects until my projects outgrew these old, dull tools. My woodworking creations continued to improve as did my skills and artistry. I quickly discovered that using improved tools would translate into improved craftsmanship. As any woodworker will tell you, new tools require new skills.

Woodworking is a great metaphor for shaping and molding students. There is simply no good substitute for a sharp tool. If you want to build the best projects possible, you need to use the best tools possible. Thinking in terms of the next decade for our country, we will be sorely disappointed in our projects if we fail to improve our tools.

Within this article, I will try to paint a picture of how technology will shape the way we educate students in the next decade. I will attempt to show the amazing possibilities that lay before us if we will simply walk through the doorway of opportunity that is open to us. My focus will be this idea: Transforming the student from being a passenger to becoming a “user.” You may be wondering what I mean by this. Let me explain.

Ask yourself what it means to be a “user.” A user is not simply a person who uses. For the student, being a user should involve using the latest technology in a free and autonomous manner. This new-found freedom will allow the student to become an active participant in his/her education instead of a passive passenger. No other time in history have we been so able to make this a reality.

In our current technological society, being a user also means being tracked. Tracking has become a major part of our daily lives and is precisely the engine that should drive our educational process for the foreseeable future. Tracking a student means having the ability to target education toward weaknesses and strengths. The ability to accurately customize curriculum to the individual has been the holy grail of educational philosophy for many years. This golden age of technological development may soon enable this dream to become a reality.

Current educational curriculum and individual assessment is arbitrary at best. Being able to accurately asses a student can only be achieved by using modern tracking and database technologies. The means by which we can make this a reality is readily available and only needs to be taken off the shelf to be used. If Congress is looking for a shovel-ready project, this may be the one.

Imagine a world where every child has a tablet computer with ready access to the App of virtual photographic memory (internet). Further, imagine that every student can access all the knowledge of humankind freely at any moment in time. Continue to imagine a world where a misspelled word brings up a spelling challenge application instead of an auto correction. Try to contemplate what it would mean for a teacher to have a database of every misspelled word, every misunderstood concept or every missed equation for each of their students. Try to envision a teacher with the ability to customize the experience of the individual “user” with minimal effort. Imagine the curriculum being automatically targeted to the user through an intuitive educational platform that knows every strength and each unique weakness. I could go on, but I think you get the point.

The company that makes this standard available to the educational community will be the company that shapes the future of humankind. Will it be Google, Apple, Microsoft, or some other yet unknown pioneer?

Continuing from the thoughts in my last post, I would like to elaborate on the idea of the student as a user of a new standardized educational platform. It is obvious to me that the future of education will always mirror our everyday lives in one way or another. If you examine how technology has influenced your daily life already, you begin to put together a snapshot of what it will mean to be educated in the next decade.

In the last few hundred years, most individuals would consider an education as something you receive. You often hear the question asked, “Where did you receive your education?” As we proceed through the next decade, education will slowly move away from reception and toward being custom designed for the individual user. New technology will not only allow us to receive an education, but also develop an education. The question we might ask in 10 years is, “How did you develop your education?” The question of where will still be important, but the how of the matter will be the focus that defines the individual.

To make this a reality we will need a standardized platform from which to develop a student’s unique education. This standardized platform will allow us to tailor a custom curriculum that will be matched to talents, interests and life goals. For the educator, a standardized platform will create a way to assist the student in discovering a true purpose in life through a unique educational experience. The basics of reading, writing and arithmetic will not be taught as much as they will be discovered and used. Learning will become a reciprocal experience between the teacher, the student and the machine.

Under a standardized platform, each of these three participants will have a role to play. The teacher will be the facilitator, assisting the development of the curriculum and inspiring the direction the student takes. The student will be the user, gathering resources, skills and knowledge in an efficient and measured sequence. The machine will do the work of data gathering and analysis, which will assist the teacher and student in refining the curriculum. This data gathering work of the machine will also free the teacher from the burden of record-keeping and tedious tasks that currently distract from the real job of teaching and learning.

Under a standardized system, grade level will be far less important. Achievement and progression will be measured by accomplishment and intelligence as a benchmark for success. The question of failure or success will be irrelevant and replaced with a standard and consistent measurement of potential and overall intelligence. Information will no longer be missed but continually rehearsed and monitored for retention by the machine.

In our current educational paradigm, the teacher is in charge of arbitrarily constructing curriculum. This approach to curriculum development is based on inexperience in some cases, outdated materials, inadequate funding and a shortage of time. Measuring the success of a specific curriculum is currently impossible. With a standardized system, comparisons of curricular success can be made across the entire spectrum of education and then continually reformulated and enhanced by the machine.

Sadly, teachers today are bogged down with an assortment of mind-numbing tasks that would be better suited to an off-the-shelf automated system. Tasks such as data tracking, reporting and record keeping are currently accomplished manually. These tasks could easily be delegated to an intuitive database. Developing a standard to follow would eliminate these tasks and free the teacher to do their main job of teaching students.

Education 3.0

Throughout history, man has sought to pass on knowledge to the next generation. This process started with oral tradition, storytelling and writing. With the advent of the printing press, knowledge and information slowly became available to the masses. The amount of information that could be gained by one human in a lifetime was severely limited by his access to printed materials and wealth. The majority of learning was gained through observation and imitation. We can call this Education 1.0.

Education 2.0 starts around the late eighteen hundreds with universal literacy movements throughout newly industrialized regions of the world. Improvements in education slowly transitioned from apprenticeship to formal education and training. Despite our movements toward universal education, access to knowledge and opportunity continues to be inequitable throughout the world. Even with the arrival of the computer revolution, access to the tools of learning continues to define the learner.

The next decade may mark the moment in history when all men are granted equal access to the greatest treasure a soul can possess. I use the word may in the last sentence because there is the chance that we will miss this golden opportunity. Access to Education 3.0 will only be gained through investment and universal standardization. If we continue to divert wealth toward fruitless goals and corporate greed, this opportunity will be lost or hopelessly delayed.

Education 3.0, when it arrives, will be the age of universal enlightenment. Platforms for education and learning will slowly standardize and become globally accessible and affordable. The poorest to the wealthiest will have access to the machine that runs the platform.

The thought on your mind at this point is most likely wondering what machine I keep referring to. The machine in question is the one we have been so busy teaching and training since roughly 1969. You’ve probably guessed it by now that I am referring to the internet. The great cloud of knowledge that we call the internet is precisely the mechanism that we will use to build the platform of Education 3.0. When the platform is finally in place, the decade to follow will see the greatest amount of wealth, discoveries and use of human potential that we have witnessed during our time on this earth. The only question that remains to be answered is the point at which I will leave this article.

When will we allow the user to use the machine to its potential?

A Lesson in Education Technology From a Very, Very Old Tradition

In Okinawa, Japan, women have been diving for pearls for more than 2,000 years. Traditionally dressed in only a loincloth, they would dive to depths as deep as 120 feet to find the oysters and mussels that produce pearls. This work was largely done by women because they were better able to endure the cold of the depths they were diving (Women’s bodies distribute fat more evenly then men.) The work was very dangerous, as you might expect, exposing them to predators, harsh environments and shallow water blackouts.

In the 1960s, they were approached by a firm selling scuba gear. The company demonstrated that one person with the right gear could gather as many oysters as an entire village of women in a day. The results were enticing, but they also raised a number of very significant questions including which women would use the gear, and how would the profits be divided. A town counsel was called and everyone discussed the pros and cons of buying scuba gear. In the end, the decision was made reject the use of scuba and continue with their tradition.

Today these Ama Divers, as they are called, still dive for pearls, though largely for the benefit of tourists rather than for the pearls they gather. Even scuba divers couldn’t compete with the advancements in pearl culture, where thousands of oysters could be grown in shallow depths and tricked into growing pearls in a confined area where they could be easily harvested.

So what does this have to do with education? Look just about anywhere in the education industry and you will find wholesale attempts to introduce as much technology into the classroom as quickly as possible. There are even watchdog groups that report on the school boards that are acting the quickest to engage in these technologies. Blog after blog extols the virtues of employing the latest technological masterpiece, while those who are slower are looked down on as archaic and anachronistic. Some of these programs have good empirical data to back them up, many do not. Some programs are developed by wonderful people with altruistic motives, but many are being promoted by new non-profits that are little more than shells for large corporations who stand to make fortunes if their particular technology becomes the new standard.

With all the hype and hyperbole that is flying around right now, it is virtually impossible to find a voice that will ask the tough questions about whether or not these technologies make good sense. Unlike the Japanese Ama Divers, there are few town council meetings to carefully consider what makes sense and what does not. One of the reasons the Common Core standards, good as they may be, are getting such resistance at the grass roots level is because the proponents have A) used a top-down approach, and B) have not been completely forthcoming about who the stakeholders are and who will profit when these technologies are adopted.

Certainly there is nothing wrong with coming up with something new and making a profit on it; it’s the American way. However, using healthy political contributions to get the support of legislators in bellwether states in exchange for support for new programs is certainly less desirable.

This doesn’t mean we need to be reactionary; it just means that we need to examine the new technologies that are introduced, checking the validity of their claims carefully before we purchase them. It also doesn’t mean we need to reject a promising new technology, as the divers did, if that technology can produce better results at a lower cost. What it does mean is that teachers and parents alike should ask the requisite questions to make sure we are getting the best bag for the buck.

Progress and technology are wonderful tools when balanced with careful consideration and forethought. Let’s do the due diligence before we head down a rabbit hole that could take years to escape. It’s our future we are betting on here, and that is certainly worth our full attention.

The Ultimate Combination of Education and Technology – The Distance MBA Degree

Due to the incessant and ever-increasing demand of many companies and corporations for the most talented and skilled people to hold their tops posts, the need for a comprehensive and detailed system of training these select individuals has risen over the years. And the best way to get a scientific based approach to management is through the perfect balance of theory and practice that is offered by an MBA degree. Very few other programs, if any, offer better training in all the aspects and nuances of management and running every aspect of a business like the MBA program. So it’s not surprising that more and more people are turning to it to enrich their knowledge and to significantly bolster their resumes.

It’s a very common fact that those who have received the benefit of an MBA degree are usually entrusted with higher posts, greater responsibilities, and higher pay than those who attempt to climb the corporate ladder without them. But it’s also true that there are several people who are not able due to time, schedule or distance to enroll themselves in traditional MBA classes. Many of these classes would require students to attend classes like regular university students or to attend night classes. And for those who live far away from institutions of learning or are engaged with their jobs or families far too much too much to have time or energy to spare, this poses serious problems. Many just have to accept the fact that a regular MBA degree is not for them. But should this stop gifted individuals from learning advanced management skills? Of course not!

The perfect solution for this problem would be the distance MBA degree. Distance education, as its name implies, is perfect for educating students that are not physically ‘on-site’. And because of significant advances in technology, such as the Internet and all the powers of communication that come with it (such as web chat, e-mails, online modules etc.) students are assured that they get their lectures in real time and that their reading materials are received complete and with as little delay as possible.

There are many forms to this kind of education. These include: correspondence courses through snail or e-mail, non-interactive broadcast video, pre-recorded video, live teleconference or videoconference, and online/offline computer courses. With the variety of options, students can pick the one that is most convenient for their needs.

The Role of Technology in Education

In the current age we live in, technology has become an important component. Every day there is some new gadget or software that makes lives easier and improves on the technology and software that already exists. Making lives easier is not, however, the only role technology plays in our lives.

Technology is playing an increasing role in education. As technology advances, it is used to benefit students of all ages in the learning process.

Technology used in the classroom helps students adsorb the material. For example, since some people are visual learners, projection screens linked to computers can allow students to see their notes instead of simply listening to a teacher deliver a lecture.

Software can be used to supplement class curriculum. The programs provide study questions, activities, and even tests and quizzes for a class that can help students continue learning outside the classroom.

Technology has also become part of many curriculums, even outside of computer and technology classes. Students use computers to create presentations and use the Internet to research topics for papers and essays.

Students also learn to use the technology available to them in computer and tech classes. This ensures that after graduation they will be able to use the technology in a work setting, which may put them ahead of someone who didn’t have access to a particular technology or software in their own school setting.

As technology advances, students have better access to educational opportunities like these. When something new and “better” is revealed, the “older” technology becomes more affordable, allowing it to be used in educational settings, even when schools are on a tight budget.

Technology has also advanced to help children even before they’ve started school. Educational video games and systems for young children helps them prepare for school and in some cases get a head start on their education.

There are people who may say children are “spoiled” by technology. Instead of being able to add a long column of numbers in their heads, for example, they turn to a calculator. Regardless of these arguments, technology is an important part of today’s society. By incorporating it into the classroom, students will be better equipped to transition from the classroom to the work place.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.

Education & Technology – Then and Now

If anyone ever wants to know whether education technology, specifically video, works in the classroom, all one has to utter in response is: “Conjunction junction, what’s your function?” or “I’m just a bill on Capitol Hill.” It’s unlikely you’ll find anyone born after 1955 that doesn’t remember at least a concept or two from the Schoolhouse Rock series that was originally produced between 1973 and 1986.

We’ve all had the experience when we hear a familiar song and immediately recall a moment from our past connected to the song. It was proven long ago, and Schoolhouse Rock is an additional testament to the fact, that when both audio and visual elements are added to educational concepts, students are engaged at a deeper level and more likely to retain that information.

In the words of Hannah, a child interviewed during a research project on how video enhances learning, “A lot of us watch TV, and we remember TV,” she said. “When the teacher tells us to read directions in a book or when she’s trying to explain things, I don’t always understand. But when she shows us, I understand it more.”

The practice of using education technology and enhancing curriculum with audio-visual elements grew rapidly during the last half of the 20th century. In the last ten years or so, however, the technology explosion has produced enhancements in communication, entertainment, and information retrieval and has sent children’s education in different directions.

In light of this, does video still have a place as part of our education technology tool set? Of course! A good educational video, whether delivered via VHS, DVD, or from a website, when used appropriately in the curriculum, still provides the following benefits:

o Appeals to Multiple Learning Styles – Different videos can explain a single concept in completely different ways which increases the likelihood of the student learning what is being taught.

o Appeals to Multiple Teaching Styles – The use of videos as part of education technology allows teachers a variety of ways to cover the curriculum.

o Connects Concepts to Applications – Teachers can use situations portrayed in the video to inspire students to come up with their own examples of the concept being taught.

o Students Gain Deeper Understanding – Students having difficulty with a particular concept can repeat viewing a video, by themselves, at their own pace, until they develop the necessary understanding.

o Attention Leads to Retention – Attentiveness increases when students are presented with concrete, visual images that are fast-paced and interesting. Naturally attentive students become more knowledgeable and perform better on assessments.

A year after the research project involving Hannah, she could still remember the concepts taught through video and the teachers were convinced student performance had improved. And, if you can remember even one of the concepts taught by Schoolhouse Rock, the case for using video is made.